On July 24, 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne was signed, calling for a population exchange between Greece and Turkey. The exchange did not apply to the Muslim Cham Albanians of Epirus.
The Treaty of Lausanne brought the Asia Minor Catastrophe to a painful end whilst at the same time, ending the Greek war efforts that had begun with the Balkan Wars in 1912. East Thrace, Imbros, Tenedos and the Smyrna zone were conceded to Turkey while a compulsory population exchange between Greece and Turkey was decided upon. The exchange did not include the Muslims of West Thrace, the Greek Orthodox residents of Istanbul, Imbros and Tenedos, the Muslims of «Albanian nationality» living in Epirus (Chameria), or the Greek Orthodox Arabs residing in Cilicia.